Written by Chang Chinsung, Professor of East Asian art in the Department of Ar- chaeology and Art History at Seoul National University Old Monk Yun Duseo was born in Haenam, South Jeolla province (Jeollanam-do), as the fourth son of Yun Ihu (1636–1699). His great-grandfather was Yun Seondo (1587–1671), who is famous for the sijo poem Eobu sasisa ( The Fisherman’s Songs of the Four Seasons ). The Haenam Yun clan was a powerful and wealthy family in Haenam. As Yun Iseok (1626–1694), the heir apparent, had no son to carry on the family line, he adopted Yun Duseo when he was a newborn. After spending his childhood years in Haenam, Yun Duseo moved to Hanyang (present-day Seoul) with his adoptive parents sometime between 1675 (age eight) and 1678 (age eleven). When Yun Iseok passed away in 1694, Yun Duseo became the heir apparent to the Yun family. Living near where Myeongdong Cathedral stands today, he concentrated on studying for the civil service examinations. However, Yun, whose family belonged to the Southerners faction, was barred entry to government service due to the political climate, as the Westerners faction held power at the time. As his elder brothers underwent various severe hardships due to their involvement in factional conflict, Yun gave up his dreams of civil service and returned to his home in Haenam in 1713. Still, as an artist, he re- mained outstanding in a number of genres of painting including landscapes, figure paintings, portraits, and animal paintings. OldMonk shows amonk who is walking down a path, holding a long wooden staff in one hand and Buddhist prayer beads in the oth- er. Yun exquisitely portrayed the contemplative appearance of the oldmonk, whose downward-turned face is delicately lined to express the deepness of his thoughts. In contrast, the monk’s robe is painted in quick, thick brushstrokes. The clothing is painted with such a swiftness that one can almost feel the speed with which the brush moved. In addition, the staff that the monk is holding is depicted in a single brushstroke. Such rapid brushwork makes the bottom part of the staff display the flying white effect, which refers to a special calligraphic brush effect in which ink is not fully absorbed into the paper. There is an intense visual contrast between the intricately detailed face, foot, hands, and prayer beads and the boldly painted clothes. To be able to capture in an instant the pensive expression of an old monk, slowly strolling along a path against a backdrop of bamboo and weeds, is a testament to Yun Duseo’s remarkable ability and superb brushwork.
윤두서는 전라도 해남 海南 에서 윤이후 尹爾厚 , 1636-1699 의넷째아들로태어났다. 그의증조부는 <어부사시사 漁父四 時詞 >로유명한윤선도 尹善道 , 1587~1671 이다. 해남윤씨집안은 막대한 재산을 소유한 해남의 토호 土豪 였다. 집안의 종손인 윤이석 尹爾錫 , 1626~1694 은 뒤를 이을 아들이 없자 사촌 동생 윤이후의 넷째인 윤두서를 양자로 삼았다. 해남에서 어린 시절을 보낸 윤두서는 양부모를 따라 1675년(8세)~1678 년(11세) 사이에 한양으로 이주하였다. 이후 1694년에 양 부 윤이석이 별세하자 그는 해남윤씨 집안의 종손이 되었 다. 윤두서는 현재의 명동성당 인근에 살면서 과거 공부에 열중했다. 그러나남인 南人 이었던윤두서는서인 西人 이득세 하던당시의정치적상황에서벼슬을할수없었다. 그는친 형들이 당쟁에 휘말려 고초를 겪자 벼슬에 대한 모든 희망 을버리고 1713년에해남으로낙향했다. 그는산수화, 인물 화, 초상화, 동물화등여러그림장르에뛰어났다. <노승도>는 염주를 손에 끼고 긴 나무 지팡이를 짚은 채 길을걸어가는노승을그린그림이다. 윤두서는땅을바라 보며깊은생각에빠진노승의진지한표정을섬세한선으 로정교하게묘사했다. 반면에노승이입고있는승복은굵 은 선으로 매우 빠르게 그려냈다. 붓의 속도를 느낄 수 있 을정도로윤두서는신속하게노승의옷을표현하였다. 아 울러그는노승이짚고있는지팡이를하나의굵은선으로 단숨에그렸는데, 붓질이너무빨라지팡이아래쪽에먹이 묻지 않은 흰 부분이 드러난 비백 飛白 효과가 나타났다. 섬 세하게 그려진 얼굴, 발, 손, 염주와 대담하게 묘사된 옷은 강렬한 시각적 대비를 보여준다. 대나무와 잡풀을 배경으 로 천천히 걸으며 사색에 잠긴 노승의 모습을 순간적으로 포착하여그린윤두서의뛰어난필력 筆力 과기량이이그림 에잘드러나있다.
글. 장진성 서울대학교고고미술사학과교수
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